The Stowe Foundation
Fifth Generation Wireless (5G) Effects on Human Biology
Fifth Generation Wireless (5G) Effects on Human Biology
Fifth Generation Wireless (5G) Effects on Human Biology
Dr. Ashler Kish, PhD.
Dr. Lawrence Stowe, PhD.
Orcho Aerospace – Advanced Scientific Research Division (ASRD)
5G technology is said to bring a higher degree of pathways for cellular technologies than 4G that is quickly becoming overcrowded. In this academic article we address these issues by positing post effects, positive and negative of human biological reactions concerning 5G technological instruments. In this discussion we ponder the results of wave functions and chaotic packages in frequency space also its dynamic acting upon the Reticular Activating System (RAS). We discuss further the cellular somatic and neural effects of 5G rads (rad=0.01Gy=0.01J/kg) on human SAR (1.6 watts per kilogram 1.6 W/kg) which includes human cell plasmatic changes beginning with DNA/RNA intrusions.
Keywords: Quantum Entanglements, 5G Cellular and Protein Interactions, 5G and the Reticular Activation System, 5G and DNA/RNA Interferences, Mind control.
“Here Starts the Work of Dr. Ashler Kish”
- Fifth Generation Wireless (5G) Effects on Human Biology
Many scientists may not be totally aware of the positive potential, and the negative effects of UHF wave forms. Empirical evidence holds the idea that cancer related to 5G is not only linked to mobile phone radiation, also other factors may be involved in its malignant phase. Most mobile operators use radiofrequency waves in the range of 300 MHz to 3 GHz that can be harmful for human health. Many studies have concluded RF is a known carcinogen, on the other hand there is overwhelming conjecture to provide for the idea that Ultra High Frequencies (UHF) can arrest or even revers some forms of cancer depending on how the wave is generated.
Frequency wave generations that are impregnated with specific algorithmic entrainments may have a bifurcated, bipolarized effect upon the neurology of the encephalon, and the cerebrum on a sliding scale in human and zootypes. This is often due to the dominance of the brain orientation. If the left side is dominant or if the right side is dominant, or the primitive brain. The third possibility is that of the equilateral brain set that processes equally. The brain typically has 4 states that it cycles through at any given time. These states can be manipulated via specific wave forms. To edify more precisely, the brain has an array of oscillations that emit frequencies that can be reversely entrained. This is very much tantamount to a computer hacker using input/output channels through ports to move past the defenses of the host. In like manner entrainments change the engaged frequencies to become close to or identical to the entrained waveform. This level of psychology can be very dangerous in the wrong hands as neural access from outside sources can cause the DNA of a cell to move into apoptosis phase or cytogenesis. The path to these actions are communicated to the human body in several ways being: first the Reticular Activation System (RAS) that is liaised to the brain’s control loop (feedback differential), next is the direct action upon a neural group that results in the firing of an action potential, and last the direct chaotic electronic contact that interrupts normal neural actions that results in a neural seizure.
We may first ponder the effects of wave field science acting upon human biological cells to evaluate the case of carcinogenic effects. Empirical epidemiological experiments provided fundamental evidence of increased risk for head and brain tumours, for example sonic neuroma and glioma. These research working groups reached the conclusion that even none-ionic RF radiation from devices that emit non-ionizing RF radiation in the frequency range of 30 kHz-300 GHz, is a Group 2B, and is a “very conceivable,” human carcinogen. Later studies have corroborated these findings and have therefore fortified the academic proofs.
RAS Waveform Interactions
There is a special relationship between the limbic system and the RAS and their encephalon’s rendezvous. In particular the RAS control loop, and its feedback differential including descending radiations (throughputs) to the hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. These glands are charged with its working compacity involving transduction, and is the source of some thoughts, and neurological reactions as well as action potential stimulus. These action potential’s charges respond when cell neural potential becomes acute insomuch as the wave becomes a summit, then rapidly falls. This neural depolarization causes approximal neurology to depolarize in tandem. This neurology becomes synergetic and is an input/output control form of the brain’s superior hierarchy including the Central Nervous System (CNS), and Autonomic Nervous System (ANS).
Transmitting nerve impulse from an axon to a dendrite and across neural cell bodies due to proximity, “fires” as an electrical charge. These impulses are the result of the brain’s electric causations that assist in physical reactions. Outside electric conductivity can cause inhibition by stronger signals that impersonate neural impulses that are electrochemical signaling. This is due “partially,” (New science suggest that there are many quantum assignments to neural impulses) to the biochemical communications involving sodium ions (Na+) on the outside and a surplus of potassium ions (K+) on the inside. We intend to indicate that ionic change can be interrupted by an electronic environmental change. For example, the Nernst potential for Na+ = +55mV, Nernst potential for Cl- = -65mV, Nernst potential for K+ = -90mV. If we may then impact the resting potential of neurons causing them to fire due to signal impersonations then where is the limitations on outside stimulus affecting somatic neurology? Science now must build defense systems that provide for neural firewalls similar to the blockades involved in computerized network security. We may also speculate that the gateway of frequency medicine will become the product of wave cell interactions that just may be quantum interactions (quanta). The relationship of quarks interacting upon the principalities of cell nuclear chromatin and its subordinate levels including polypeptides and beyond create a winding staircase of building up to organic chemistry. This staircase in reverse order may affect DNA in such a way that leads to DNA gene missense mutations.
Several laboratory results have specified instruments of action for RF radiation carcinogenesis such as DNA repair, oxidative stress, down regulation of mRNA and DNA damage with single strand breaks. An article was provided from The National Toxicology Program (NTP) under the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the USA on the largest ever animal study on cell phone RF radiation and cancer. An increased incidence of glioma in the brain and malignant schwannoma in the heart was found in Rattus Norvegicus zootypes. Acoustic neuroma or vestibular schwannoma is a similar type of tumour as the one found in the heart, although benign. Thus, this animal study supported human epidemiological findings on RF radiation and brain tumour risk.
The problem with RF studies now (2019) is that there is not a significant amount of laboratory studies that include long term exposer to UHF/NIR that would render more data results to provide for answers for the effects of close proximity electron clouds that result from 5G networks. Nevertheless, the stated research and proofs are very noteworthy revealing support and common logic with facts of radio frequencies acting upon common somatic cells including how endogenous cells react to waveforms. In this report we will discuss further the microbiological and nuclear effects of penetrating radiation.
5G Radiation/Chaotic Radiation and Oncology
It is our conjecture that chaotic RF radiation may cause whole-atom and electron stimulations. This is the opposite of entrainment, purpose driving waveforms that are currently under scientific review. Chaotic UHF/NIR in close proximity being then broadcast in myriapod over prolonged periods of time should be a zootype study to simulate the persistent bombardment of UHF/NIR wave stimulations upon cell DNA. In fact, there are some studies that are close in this respect that offer significant data concerning the cellular effects of biological inhabitants living near cellphone towers. The result of the study concluded that there was a proliferation of cancer patients that lived during a 10 year span up to 400 meters from cellular transmitter sites compared to those residents that lived further away.
5G towers in order to be efficient due to long wave lengths must be in close line of site forming a multidirectional, complex frequency cloud. Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) in a NIR frequency cloud becomes more noteworthy when the focus of observation is the eye. Photochemical ocular effects result from electromagnetic field surface heating, burn, and shock that is derived from NIR bombardments. A 1994 study found that low level millimeter microwave radiation produced lens opacity in rats, that can be directly linked to cataracts.
Primarily NIR damage can be characterized into to compartments: Photochemical and Thermal damage. Of course, it is widely held that single photons of UV rays can damage tissue. This is caused by the disruption of bonds within DNA molecules and builds a latent risk of cancer. This can be truer in the event of multidirectional bombardments of high velocity, multi proton exposure from a frequency cloud. The international scientific consensus at this time is that NIR dose not prove to result in health risk consistently in controlled environments. As this can be debated and better controls should be set there is much speculation that cannot be overlooked.
5G Radiations/Entrainments of Wavelengths
There is much to look forward to as next generational now being theoretical medicine becomes a reality. 5G opens a gateway for innovation due to frequencies being entrained with neural code acting upon neurology. Moreover, the path to neural action stimulation is sonic entrainments. This broadcast of waves that may manipulate patterns of frequencies in circumference including brain waves that affect the biologicals in their environment. This can be evidenced by the Schuman Resonance Frequencies (SRF) science.
Across the board the SRF is relevant to all living conditions on the planet and can be expressed by the speed of light (c) divided by the earth circumference. The reader should find remarkable that varying the depth at which the radial axis is projected from the center of the Earth, other frequencies can be identified. To be more precise mammalian brain waves function approximately 0.5 Hz to 20 Hz being compartmentalized from Delta, Theta, Alpha, and Beta. It is more interesting that the Schuman Resonant frequency falls into the Alpha (α) brain space that is approximately 7.8 Hz. The brain frequency states can be placed as: ẟ = 0.5-3 (Deep Sleep), ᵹ = 7-7 (Between Sleep), Ȃ 8-12 (Relaxation), β = 13-20 (Daily person in situation-alertness). Notice there is a complete cycle of 0.5 seconds or 2 cycles per seconds that is 2 Hz. this Beat Frequency Oscillation (BFO) is completely patent. It should be comprehended that there is one complete cycle in 0.5 seconds or 2 cycles per second (2 Hz), the differentiation of two frequencies being 403 Hz-401 Hz. This BFO has very high potential to entrain the human brain to approximately 1.8 Hz, the consensus of acoustic entrainment.
According to Wikipedia, the Schumann model is a frequency set that is tantamount to the Earth’s electromagnetic field with a roundabout nature, and frequency close to 7.9Hz. The reason is due to wave theory, insomuch as the Earths’ ionosphere acts as a closed waveguide that is a conduit for extreme low frequency waves excited by lighting. It is further remarkable that the human brainwave range is approximately 7.8 identical to that of the Earth’s electromagnetic resonates.
Somnambulistic Western left-brain frequencies are approximately 12-20Hz which is within the Beta (β) state of consciousness. Our hypothesis is that in the Industrialized West it could be that the natural intended mindset is somnambulistic α. These wave patterns may be entrained within the same broadcast spectrum of 5G.
We should now return the focus to the RAS. It has been well documented that the primitive brain may override the functionality of the so-called conscious maintained by the cerebrum. The question as a result then becomes, “What are the various factors that affect mental transductions?” If we were to consider only the marketing potential of this technology it would be off the charts. It is more important though for the sake of this article to subject our attention to the medical applications. These applications in medicine may be communicated directly to the RAS in a noninvasive procedure. Due to the mere functionalities applied to the systems of the RAS control loop. We in addition comprehend that its primary function is to maintain awareness, and is also charged with the responsibility of personal safety. More specifically the nature that tells us to be aware is an indicated form the RAS. As far as neurology is concerned the RAS cannot bring awareness to more than one stimulus at a time although it may seem to appear that it is in human sensory perception.
All of this wavefield correspondence is transduced by the encephalon specifically the RAS that does endures a special function that includes the brain’s control loop. This system includes the brain’s frequency science. This communication supposes that the reader is educated in brain frequency waves that are very relevant to the overall scope of this report. The difference between cognition and unawareness at times is focus. This is to say that for example one can be generally unaware conceptionally of their nose, however it becomes the focus when it is brought to the subject’s attention when that sensory impact point is then realized. This particular awareness is a function of the RAS and works very similar to a computer system. Brain neurologists as before mentioned can be manipulated insomuch as 5G waves could cause entrainments of the brain frequency band. That could be a good thing that could affect public health positively or this technology could be used for very nefarious purposes.
Let’s begin with the positive technologies that could result from 5G. The UHF can entrain a broad frequency band and could function in such a way that it may affect cells if properly impregnated.
Human Cellular Communications
Cells thrive due to their ability to communicate. One main focus of this communication is communication gap junctions. Signal cell transductions can be both cell receptor orientated or frequency orientated or both. We will explore this functionality. On February 10th scientist from the Backster Research Institute in San Diego address the complex question, “Do simple cells communicate?” Their conclusion was that the biological communication functionality of the amoeba, paramecium, and plant cells in general can be affected existentially by external signal phenomena. This phenomenon is theorized to be the result of morphogenic field theory. This theory is in need of much more laboratory hours as there are so many technologies that may descend from these outcomes.
Communications cell to cell causes the logical inquiry, can the brain communicate with other cells? It is widely publicized that the placebo effect is a broad-spectrum agent of molecular change. Grover Cleveland "Cleve" Backster Jr. in the 1960s discovered that plants in fact do communicate via an unknown media. They used double-blind controls to ensure that there were no outside influences. The relevant and noteworthy experiment that we will bring to focus is that of a philodendron plant that was connected to an EEG machine. The results indicated that the plant peaked on the EEG according to the thoughts of the controller form miles away. Facts relating to Backster’s laboratory evaluation are more precise and scientific for instance, a 1980 Backster study was conducted using cheek epithelial leukocyte cells (migratory leukocytes). These electroded cells were connected to an EEG machine and were videotaped. The subject in which the cell cultures were taken was shown a series of pictures. The controller noticed when the subject was confronted with a picture from Playboy magazine the cells reacted patently according to the EEG. This studies with other consistent cell communication laboratory results bring more questions to the media in which biological cell communications are flowing.
Bringing together this study and what we know about gap junctions it is comprehensible to conclude the idea of entrainments motivating the thought waves of a human impulse signal during uptime are possible. To provide for more edification concerning waveforms and entrainments when separate waveforms are bound the joined wave will produce a higher or lesser amplitude depending on weather the waveform crests are aligned in superposition insomuch as it results in higher amplitudes. In these cases when peak and wave crests are united and in concert then the output will be decreased.
Beats in frequency between 401 and 403 Hz mixed together with a signal generator produces an apparent oscillation. Note that there is one complete cycle in 0.5 seconds or 2 cycles per second (2 Hz) that is the difference between the two frequencies specifically 403 Hz – 401Hz. This frequency oscillation has the potential to entrain the human brain to 2 Hz, the basic concept of human brain frequency entrainment. If we are sure that a broadcast from a sound generator in the form of a 5G antenna can produce these frequencies. Then it can affect the public health in many ways as entrainments can be the source of brain frequency manipulation. This manipulation can be introduced directly to epidermic neurology, or through the ears, and or eyes.
NIR and Cell Reactants
Inside every cell chromosome are literally charged particles with the data that is causative in the process of cell regeneration. In order to comprehend these frequencies and cellular interactions we must consider ionic cell responses that results from NIR engagements, more precisely electron transport chains and ATP energy transfers. If persistent exo-stimulus such as 5G waves acts upon electrons in its spin phases that are in cells then (Zeeman effect) this radio interference can cause electrons to transition from one state to another in some cases resulting in electron identical isotopes, and electron changes to and fro valence, or otherwise orbitals within atoms. These affects if properly deployed may bring harmony to diseased cells in their somatic environments.
This publication further provides for enlightenment of the facts regarding such resonant behaviors including electromagnetic wave resonance phenomenon. Polydirectional wave propagations can offer higher probabilities of cell entrainments. This is due to the likeliness of whole-body reactions as a result of 5G wave cloud interactions acting upon cells, also cell mRNA transnslation/transcriptions. Notwithstanding the radiation acting upon cells of proteins does not have to be ionic to cause a charged reaction. This fact is very apparent when evaluating the oxidation of coenzymes during oxidative phosphorylation time. NADH à NAD+ becomes oxidized to a positive charge as it loses an electron H+ + 2e- this reaction allows for electrons to be transferred from one electron acceptor to another and is the redundant path to the generation of ADP (Reduced Oxygen: 2e- + 2H+ + ½ O2 à H2O). In these functions every step of the way energy is being released that carry H+ across a given membrane.
Acoustic Charge and Transport
The question then becomes: how do electrons become transported by radio waves to affect proteins other than waves manipulating oxidative phosphorylation? The answer is: Modern semiconductors that provide a great media for this transportation. According to Achim Wixforth of the University of Munich, and his collaborators electrons can be completely trapped between waves forming strips of charge. Accordingly, these strips move in concert with the soundwaves without much power being lost by sloshing. It is these elections that may also act upon biological cells that can speed or delay, add, or detract electrons in their various orbitals. These changes in electron functionality opens the door to a miridae of opportunities in regards to healing a cell and bringing it to homeostasis.
Oxidative & Cellular Stress
As before mentioned these same wave deployments may cause certain carcinogenic affects. 5G can cause negative interactions of biomolecules including RNA and DNA proteins, and also lipids. Oxidative stress is indicated in the natural ageing of cells and many different disease states. Oxidative stress can be the result of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Exposure to NIR levels that are above Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) results in a cell reaction variant of ROS generations. Nevertheless, most laboratory results indicate ROS affects 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), an identified marker for oxidative damage to sperm DNA. Placing healthy cells that have not been exposed to SAR values and increasing SAR values upon cells that were impacted resulted in remarkable differences. The cells that were exposed to elevated SAR values and durations produced patient levels of oxidative resulting DNA damage.
There needs to be many more long-term laboratory evaluations that yield more consistent results over a variety of cell types, and for prolonged periods of time to identify the positive and negative effects of cell interactions with NIR.
“Here Starts the Work of Dr. Lawrence Stowe”
The Major Forum Review article “ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING Volume 21, Number 2, 2014 provides an excellent review of the major intracellular control mechanisms. of oxidative stress.
Effectors of IR
Gamma radiation of cellular water rapidly generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydroxyl radical (OH) and ionized water (H2O+), as well as the less investigated reductants hydrogen radical (H) and hydrated electrons (eaq-). Within one ps (10-12 s), superoxide (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are formed as secondary ROS products of IR . Subsequent chemical cascades affect the intracellular stoichiometry of these reactive species and generate additional cell-damaging molecules. For example, metal catalysis by intracellular ferrous and/or cuprous ions converts O2and H2O2 to form additional amounts of OH . In a separate, but critically signiﬁcant process, O2- couples with endogenous nitric oxide (NO), forming peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) . Cumulatively, these species, along with peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3), and others, are referred to as reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The increased formation of RNS and the generation of additional ROS equivalents are particularly harmful to the cell, as the reaction products are in many cases more reactive with biomolecules than their precursors. Cellular macromolecules are modiﬁed by direct ionization and via the reactivity of the high-energy species originating from water radiolysis (indirect effects of ionization), affecting an estimated 2000 primary ionization events . The timing attributes of cellular damage inﬂicted by IR range from chemical reactions occurring as rapidly as 0.01 ps after IR to major cellular effects that occur in the range of minutes to hours. Direct radiation damage is initiated in the range of 10-14–10-12 s with the breaking of S–H, O–H, N–H, and C–H bonds. Widespread biomolecular damage induced by radiolytic products of water begins within 1 ps (10-12 s), along with thiol depletion and further bond breaking (e.g., C–C and C–N). By 1ms after IR exposure, the reactions of nascent OH, H, and eaq- are mostly completed and DNA repair processes are initiated. Though the activity of some reactive IR products has diminished, an important event occurring through *10s post-irradiation is the increased intracellular formation of ROS and RNS species through mechanisms described next (section ‘‘Endogenous propagation of IR-induced ROS’’). The cumulative effects of the early, rapid biochemical processes are manifested in later stages of cellular damage, including the slowing of mitosis, damage to protein signaling networks, and membrane rupture, estimated to occur over the course of minutes to 10h .
Endogenous propagation of IR-induced ROS
The overall amount of ROS generated from primary ionization events is further propagated via the intracellular activation of endogenous ROS-producing systems such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH) oxidase, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) (12, 191, 235, 247, 351). IR exposure has been deﬁnitively linked to mitochondria-dependent ROS/RNS generation in tumor cells. Increased ROS generation in mitochondria after low-dose IR signiﬁcantly contributed to radio sensitivity and cell survival . Whole body irradiation of rats resulted in the increased activity of cytochrome oxidase and NADH-cytochrome c reductase, decreased antioxidant activity, and increased lipid peroxidation in live mitochondrial 0fractions. Irradiation of A549 cells induced mitochondrial ROS production, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and promoted respiration and ATP production. Similarly, an increased expression of NADPH oxidase was reported after irradiation with 10Gy in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells, and the inhibition of NADPH oxidase led to a decrease in IR-generated ROS . IR-induced chromosomal instability in hematopoietic stem cells (6.5Gy) was reversed by NADPH oxidase inhibition using diphenylene iodonium. The mechanisms of NADPH oxidase activation by IR may involve ceramide signaling. In addition to NADPH oxidase activation, a 2.5Gy dosage of IR was shown to induce mitochondrial ROS production that can be blocked by inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration. The temporal propagation of IR effects is also achieved through nitrosative stress mechanisms. A study of murine bone marrow stromal cells showed that irradiation with 2–50Gy stimulated the expression of nitric oxide synthase (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), leading to a dose-dependent increase in NO levels in vitro along with the increased occurrence of nitrated tyrosine residues in vivo . Signiﬁcant increases in the expression of iNOS and elevated levels of nitrate and nitrite have been associated with radiation-induced
Epithelial dysfunction in the colon. In addition to directly modifying tyrosine, cysteines, and hemes, NO is the endogenous precursor to ONOO- and other RNS (23). The activation of ROS- and RNS-producing pathways by IR is particularly important, as it illustrates a targeted localized increase in these reactive species as a consequence of global IR-induced ROS production, selectively altering cellular signaling and a host of metabolic pathways. The complex chemical interplay of ROS/RNS generated directly by IR and through derivative systems such as NADPH oxidase, iNOS, and mitochondrial ETC is summarized in Figure 1. O2-,H 2O2, OH, and ONOO- are especially reactive, damage a wide range of cellular biomolecules, and react with each other to generate additional ROS/RNS. For example, the powerful oxidant peroxynitrite decays rapidly in acidic conditions (pKa 6.8) and forms the highly potent secondary oxidant NO2 (22, 40). In general, the relatively milder oxidants (e.g.,H 2O2) target biomolecules in a more selective manner, while ROS with higher reactivity, such as OH, are promiscuous;
Cellular defense against IR-generated ROS
The capability of cells to survive an IR-based insult is dependent on a complex network of ROS-metabolizing molecules and detoxifying enzymes that comprise the cellular oxidative stress defense. O2-, such as that generated through water radiolysis, is dismutated to H2O2 and O2 by the activity of super oxide dismutase (SODs). Enzymatic detoxiﬁcation of H2O2 is accomplished through the activity of catalase, peroxiredoxins (Prx), and glutathione peroxidases (GPxs). The roles of these antioxidant enzymes are paramount even under normal cellular conditions to keep ROS levels and pro-oxidant mechanisms in check. Aiding in this cause are low-molecular weight (MW) endogenous antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH), ascorbate (Vitamin C), melatonin, lipoic acid, ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q10), and Vitamin E, which target water radiolysis products, partially oxidized biomolecules, and peroxynitrite . Almost immediately after cellular exposure to IR, the low MW antioxidant supply becomes compromised, leading, for example, to a rapid decrease in reduced GSH levels . In an effort to combat the oxidative burst imparted by IR, cellular transcription factors, including nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and nuclear factor kappa-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-jB), are activated, resulting in the increased expression of ROS detoxifying enzymes, including catalase and SOD along with GPx, glutathione S-transferase (GST), heme oxygenase-1, and several others . In addition, increased levels of many mammalian Prx isoforms have been noted after 10Gy IR exposure, further enhancing the cellular defense mechanisms. Both cumulative and acute IR readily disrupt the cellular redox balance, eventually overwhelming the cellular antioxidant system, an event marked by enzyme inactivation, a low GSH/glutathione disulﬁde ratio, and a decreased pool of low MW antioxidants. The consequence of such redox imbalance is manifested in the efﬁcient modiﬁcations of nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, and other biomolecules.
Chronic IR-mediated oxidative effects— evaluation based on in vivo evidence
Without doubt, the fundamental reaction chemistry underlying acute radiation damage involves rapid and wide spread oxidation events that play critical functions in tumor cell killing. In addition, indirect contributions from inﬂammation, changes in vasculature, growth factor signaling, cytokine expression, mitochondrial dysfunction, and other cellular responses have also been demonstrated to inﬂuence the overall outcome of radiation treatment in vivo. Many of these processes have an underlying mechanism of oxidative regulation and/or action. A remaining question is whether the late effects of radiation on normal tissue (e.g., chronic oxidative stress occurring over weeks to months after treatment) are regulated by oxidative mechanisms. For example, when using radiation nephropathy as an indicator of normal tissue damage [see ref. (78) for translational relevance and descriptions of mechanisms involved], there is evidence that both supports and refutes a function of late IR-induced oxidative injury. Supporting evidence includes the identiﬁcation of chronic oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-2¢-deoxyguanosine [8-oxodG]) in glomerulus and tubules for approximately 24 weeks after IR treatment (288). On the other hand, antioxidant treatment in a rat model of radiation nephropathy using three different reagents (deferiprone, an iron chelator; genistein, an anti-inﬂammatory isoﬂavone; and apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) did not signiﬁcantly protect against kidney damage (73). Other studies using microarray analyses for gene expression have found either no or only limited evidence of upregulation of known antioxidant proteins (72, 185). In other tissues susceptible to late radiation effects (e.g., skin, lung, and brain), treatment with antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, or enzyme mimetics has been shown to reduce the late effects of radiation(384).Clinical studies have shown that the administration of Lipsod, a lipid-encapsulated form of antioxidant enzyme SOD, led to a reduction in radiation induced skin ﬁbrosis (89). Similarly, others have shown that administration of the SOD mimetic EUK-207 along with genistein decreased the extent of radiation damage in normal lung but not skin tissue in a rat model of radiation (147). A similar prevention or mitigation of radiation late effects was obtained with blockers of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (77). A redox mechanism for their mode of action was proposed for protection against loss of cognitive functions in radiation brain injury (287, 296). Angiotensin II (Ang II), an active peptide of the RAS, binds to angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and generates ROS via NADPH oxidase. There is evidence of both increased expression of AT1R in a lung ﬁbrosis model (255) and increased production of Ang II in rat lung at 2- and 6-months post irradiation with 20Gy (54). Preclinical studies indicate a role of Ang II blockers in ameliorating radiation-induced tissue damage. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and AT1R antagonists are effective in the treatment and prevention of radiation nephropathy (74–76, 238). Other studies reported that Ang II blockers reduced radiation induced chronic injury, including lung ﬁbrosis, vascular injury, and inﬂammation (119, 179, 225, 234). ACEI ramipril, given after stereo tactical irradiation with 30Gy using a single collimated beam, reduced the severity of optic nerve damage and retained nerve function (176, 290). In addition, chronic administration of AT1R antagonist, L-158,809, or ACEI ramipril prevented radiation-induced cognitive impairment in rats assessed at 6 months post-irradiation (196, 286).
Intracellular Water and Oxidative Stress -Protons (H+) and Proton Donors
First the basic facts:
- Only hydrogen can create the free proton, H+. It is a law of the universe. Water contains protons that can be donated to a reaction. Water disassociates into H+ and OH-.
- The presence of protons, H+ has everything to do with acidic pH measurements and oxidation-reduction potential measurements (ORP). If you measure an acidic pH and a positive ORP in pure water you have free protons.
- For every electron involved in a reaction, a proton, H+ must be donated to the set of oxidation-reduction reactions to keep the system electrically balanced. That is a law of oxidation - reduction reactions. The Krebs cycle is nothing but coupled oxidation- reduction reactions. Protons drive the Krebs cycle.
- The mitochondria and the Krebs cycle must have protons or your body can not produce energy and you die. It is called the proton motive force. Dr. Krebs won a noble prize for this discovery
- Proton Donors are nothing more complicated then being a source of protons to the mitochondria. Not all hydrogen containing compounds can be proton donors. It all depends on the size, shape and chemical composition of the molecule as to whether the proton can be donated. Indisputable fact about the role of the B-vitamins in the body; they are proton donors while other vitamins are not. People lack energy when they are short on B-vitamins.
- Cell water is a source of protons to the enzymes of the Krebs cycle and cell water keeps the enzymes the proper distance apart from each other. Cell water is structured water that actively participates in the enzymatic reactions of the Krebs cycle by being a source of protons, in other words, cell water is a proton donor. Hydrate2o is designed to mimic cell water in all its functions, hydration and proton donor capacity.
ORP means Oxidation Reduction Potential. It measures the potential for a liquid solution to be an Oxidizer or a Reducer. Oxidizers strip electrons from another compound. Reducers donate electrons to other compounds. It is all about the flow of electrons. If you strip an electron from the hydrogen atom, H, you get H+, a proton. Only the hydrogen atom can create a proton. A Proton is a single positively charged unit of matter that exists in the nucleus of the atom. All atoms except hydrogen have more then one proton in the nucleus.
Hydrogen is the only element in the universe that has only one proton in its nucleus. When you strip the electron of the hydrogen atom it becomes a proton, H+. All other elements have two or more protons in their nucleus. For example, helium He has two protons and two electrons. If you strip an electron from a helium atom He, you get He+ but it is not a proton. It is a cation. There are still two protons inside the helium nucleus, but only one electron surrounding the nucleus.
If you strip the second electron you will get He(+2). It is still known as a cation with a positive two charge. Only hydrogen is a single proton atom. The electrons circulate outside the nucleus and He+ means one electron has been stripped from the atom. For every neutral compound, there is one negatively charged electron for every positive proton + in the atom. Electrons carry a negative charge and protons a positive charge. There is always a balance.
When dealing with electrons there is a further consideration. Quantum mechanics requires that there be two electrons in the outer shell or electron orbital of a molecule for a molecule to be stable. One electron has to have a positive +1/2 spin and the other has a negative -1/2 spin. Unpaired electrons create a reactive compound. Because the Hydrogen atom only has one electron, it is not stable. Two H atoms will bind together and share two electrons between them and you get hydrogen gas, H2. The hydrogen molecule H2 has two protons and two electrons. One electron is a positive 1/2 spin and the other is a negative 1/2 spin. The electrons share an orbital between the two-hydrogen nucleus and the world is happy. Spin is balanced and charge is balanced. No flow of protons and no flow of electrons.
Hydrogen is a reducer because it can donate its electron to another compound. When the hydrogen atom, H, donates an electron to another compound, it becomes H+, a proton. When helium donates an electron, it becomes a positively charged molecule, He+ a cation. It is still a reducer, but it does not create a proton. This is critical because the Krebs cycle requires protons H+ to balance the flow of electrons, e (-).
He+ has two protons but only one missing electron and weighs twice as much as the hydrogen proton H+. The size and shape and weight of the He+ (helium) cation prevent it from being used by the enzymes of the mitochondria. The mitochondria can only use protons, H+, to counter the flow of electrons.
Only hydrogen can become a proton. The proton gets donated to the Krebs cycle and the substance which was the source of the hydrogen is called a proton donor. Chlorine CL is an oxidizer. It will strip an electron from another compound and become CL- carrying the electron it just stole as a negative charge. Hydrogen H is a reducer. It will donate an electron to another compound and become a proton H+ with a positive charge. The proton can then participate in oxidation- reduction reactions. Hydrochloric acid HCL is an ionic mixture of H+ and CL-. This chemical species can only exist in water. The amount of H+ and CL- determines the concentration of the acid.
CL can carry two electrons in its outer shell (this is quantum mechanics wave theory so I do not expect everyone involved with Hydrate2o to understand this principle), therefore CL- is still looking to strip another electron from another compound to become CL(-2). Chlorine is a very strong oxidizer. [Just for clarity, two CL- molecules can combine to share their single electrons with each other and form CL2, Chlorine gas, an electrically neutral compound in terms of quantum mechanics orbital wave theory. This is when you smell the chlorine coming from a pool.]
Hydrogen H only has one electron that it can donate, hence H+ is the end of hydrogen’s contribution when it comes to the flow of electrons. HCL in a liquid solution becomes H+ CL- but the chlorine CL - is still looking to strip an electron. The liquid solution will test as an oxidizer. The ORP, the oxidation reduction potential will measure positive. This is true for even weak acids. Lactic acid is a weak acid produced by the body to be a source of protons, H+. Lactic acid in water will test with a positive ORP and a pH below 7. A neutral ORP is zero. Distilled water will measure zero.
Pure H2O is 2H+ and O (2- ) where the electrons are continuously shared in the outer orbital. The oxidizing capacity of the oxygen is exactly balanced by the reducing capacity of the hydrogen. This water will also measure a pH of 7 (neutral), because the protons are not available to be donated. Water that contains strong oxidizers like chlorine will measure very positive ORP scores. Waters that contain strong reducers, like certain trace minerals will test as a negative ORP. But there are trace minerals that are oxidizers. All water is not created equal, in Nature, or in the beverage industry. Some waters can donate protons and some cannot. The Advanced Bio-Science Division of Orcho Aerospace is studying the unique properties of a proton donor water created by the HYDRATE8X process of Dr. Lawrence Stowe
The great advantage of Hydrate*X is that we not only hydrate the cells, but we are by definition a proton donor. Independent lab tests on the physical properties of the water and comparative human clinical trials on intracellular hydration have proven the concept that not all water is created equal..
In contrast to HYDRATE8X, many people believe in the alkazone water purifier. The alkazone machine takes tap water and divides it into two streams through electrical ionization. One stream has the oxidizing trace minerals and the other the reducing trace minerals. The oxidizing stream will test positive on the ORP scale and the reducing stream will test negative on the ORP. It is all about the flow of electrons.
The alkazone people recommend you drink the negative ORP water. It will not be an oxidizer. It will not strip electrons. This is promoted to be beneficial to the body. The low ORP water is equated to be an alkaline water and good for neutralizing the acidic fluids of the body. Hence, the discussion about water always turns to acid and pH measurements.
The pH of hydrochloric acid [H+ CL-] measures the concentration of H+ or protons. A low pH means there are plenty of disassociated H+ ions. The pH of stomach acid is a pH of 1 to 3. It will also measure very high on the ORP because stomach acid is HCL, hydrochloric acid. It is a strong oxidizer which gives it the ability to destroy bacteria and breakdown protein. A neutral pH is 7; it will neither oxidize nor reduce. A pH above 7 is alkaline or base.
Alkaline (basic) compounds neutralize acid compounds. You take Alka-Seltzer or Tums to neutralize stomach acid or heartburn. All acidic compounds have free protons H+, it is a definition. It is a law of pH. If you test acidic you have protons. Lactic acid, a compound formed by the body to provide protons to the Krebs cycle under anaerobic conditions tests acidic on the pH scale. All acids provide protons.
All acids when added to water test with a positive ORP because they are also oxidizers due to the way they handle the flow of electrons. Oxygen is an oxidizer. When oxygen is dissolved in water the solution will test positive on the ORP scale. It will also test slightly acidic. Water structures itself around the Oxygen to give it a source of protons.
HYDRATE8X water tests slightly acidic and has a positive ORP. It is by definition a source of protons. HYDRATE8X has all the right measurements of viscosity, surface tension and NMR readings to be classified as hydrating water. Independent clinical tests confirmed that HYDRATE8X absorbs 8X more efficiently than standard tap water.
HYDRATE8X supplies two critical items to the mitochondria need to support energy production; Hydration to keep the cell volume and enzyme spacing in the correct physiological balance, plus protons to fuel the proton motive force of the mitochondria. No other water on the market even attempts to portray themselves as a proton donor. The market place has been led to believe that alkaline water is a health promoting water or that ultra-purified water like distilled is the best water or a heavy mineral water is the best water. These waters are all outside the norms of human physiology.
HYDRATE8X is manufactured to mimic bio-water; the water inside the cells of the body.
Proton Donors and the Proton Motive Force
The chemiosmotic theory (def) is the conventional explanation of the functioning of electron transport chains. According to this theory, the transfer of electrons down an electron transport system through a series of oxidation-reduction reactions (def) releases energy. This energy allows certain carriers in the chain to transport hydrogen ions (H+ or protons) across a membrane.
- across the inner mitochondrial membrane to the intermembrane space located between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes.
As the hydrogen ions accumulate on one side of a membrane, the concentration of hydrogen ions creates an electrochemical gradient or potential difference (voltage) across the membrane. (The fluid on the side of the membrane where the protons accumulate acquires a positive charge; the fluid on the opposite side of the membrane is left with a negative charge.) The energized state of the membrane as a result of this charge separation is called proton motive force (def) or PMF.
This proton motive force provides the energy necessary for enzymes called ATP synthas, also located in the membranes mentioned above, to catalyze the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate. This generation of ATP occurs as the protons cross the membrane through the ATP synthase complexes and re-enter either the bacterial cytoplasm or the matrix of the mitochondria. As the protons move down the concentration gradient through the ATP synthase, the energy released causes the rotor and rod of the ATP synthase to rotate. The mechanical energy from this rotation is converted into chemical energy as phosphate is added to ADP from ATP.
Proton motive force is also used to transport substances across membranes during active transport and to rotate bacterial flagella.
At the end of the electron transport chain involved in aerobic respiration, the last electron carrier in the membrane transfers 2 electrons to half an oxygen molecule (an oxygen atom) that simultaneously combines with 2 protons from the surrounding medium to produce water as an end product.
The cell energy production circuit is known as the Krebs cycle and is located inside the mitochondria of each cell. A mitochondrion is the organelle that produces energy for the cell and each cell has multiple energy production centers. It is the energy production cycle that produces free radicals such as singlet oxygen that can damage the cell. In order to prevent cell damage, the mitochondria are surrounded with anti-oxidants and specific enzymes, such as super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione, to neutralize and control damaging free radicals. Our life force is maintained by the production of energy, so we are always producing free radicals. Therefore, it is critical that we maintain a high degree of quality control over the energy production cycle. The body breaks down without proper maintenance on the engine.
Peter Mitchell, a British chemist, won the 1978 Nobel Prize for chemistry for helping to clarify how ADP (adenosine diphosphate) is converted into the energy carrying compound ATP (adenosine triphosphate) in the mitochondria of living cells. ATP is made within the mitochondria by adding a phosphate group to ADP in a process known as oxidative phosphorylation. Mitchell was able to determine how the different enzymes involved in the conversion of ADP to ATP are distributed within the membranes that partition the interior of the mitochondrion. He showed how these enzymes arrangement facilitates their use of hydrogen ions (protons, H+) as an energy source in the conversion of ADP to ATP. Later scientists have described this phenomenon as the proton motive force and the proton wave effect. The Krebs cycle requires a source of protons (H+) from proton donors.
The most common proton donor studied in the Krebs cycle, also referred to as the citric acid cycle, is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). NADH is a coenzyme made from vitamin B2 or niacin. It is present in all living cells. As a coenzyme, NADH serves to make the enzymes of the Krebs cycle work. The Krebs cycle is often described more in terms of an electron transport mechanism in which enzymes catalyze sequential oxidation reduction reactions. The fuel for the Krebs cycle is blood glucose and the agent for oxidation is oxygen. However, hydrogen protons (H+) are required for the reduction reactions. Therefore, the electron transport required to generate energy can only occur when the sequential oxidation reduction reactions are coupled together. The coupling mechanism is provided by the proton flux and this requires the presence of proton donors.
Very advanced work by Markus Meuwly and published in the Faraday Discussions suggests that the diffusion of water (H2O) into the active site of an electron coupled proton transfer is an attractive alternative to direct proton transfer from the protein matrix of ferredoxins. The ferredoxins are proteins that contain one or more iron-sulphur clusters, which makes such proteins eminent in electron transfer reactions. Ferredoxins are a major component of the Krebs cycle. Meuwly’s work suggests that the water molecule could serve as a possible proton donor.
Meuwly’s work demonstrates why chronic illness is always associated with dehydration at the cellular level. The mitochondria are being deprived of a source of proton donors, cellular H2O, which is also biomolecular water or structured water. The water in our cells is an active participant in the chemical reactions that occur in our mitochondria. The mitochondria are the original hydrogen fuel cell.
The body uses a complex system of catalysts (enzymes and coenzymes) within the mitochondria to achieve energy efficiency. A catalyst is a compound that can lower the activation energy of a given chemical reaction. In the human body, catalysts are known as enzymes and the coenzymes that make the enzymes work. We know that many coenzymes are derived from the B-vitamins and hence diet plays critical role in health.
A second major factor in the proper function of the enzymes are the metals (trace minerals in nutritional terms) attached to the amino acid sequences that form the basic protein structure of the enzyme. It is the trace minerals that easily transfer electrons from one compound to another. This is the heart and sole of energy production, the transfer of electrons. A fundamental concept in the attachment of a trace mineral or metal to a protein structure is the binding energy of the metal. How easily does the metal or trace mineral attach to the enzyme? Basically, metals are competitive with each other. This has major implications in health.
It is straight forward science that a metal, like cadmium, found in the paper of cigarettes and inhaled with every puff or breathed in through second hand smoke, can displace the biologically active metals of zinc, selenium and magnesium (the trace minerals) from the biologically active enzymes. Cadmium has a stronger binding coefficient for the amino acid structure of the enzyme than the trace minerals. When cadmium or mercury or any other heavy metal displaces a trace mineral like zinc or selenium from the enzyme it does not function properly as a catalyst. Electrons flow undirected through the cellular matrix and free radical pathology can spin out of control. You can not take enough anti-oxidants to keep up with the free radical production and hence inflammation becomes a permanent part of your life. The energy balance of the body is disrupted. In the oil refining industry they would say the catalyst has become contaminated or poisoned. In that event, the refinery catalyst is replaced with a fresh batch. This is not so easily accomplished in the body.
In the human body, the proper energy balance can only be restored by decontaminating or detoxifying the body. That is, remove the catalytic poisons (like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, aluminum, nickel) that are attached to the enzymes and replenish them with the proper energetic metals like selenium and zinc. This is the essence of chelation therapy and trace mineral replacement. Remove the toxic heavy metals and restore the beneficial trace minerals. Then the mitochondria can function and our life force restored. Through the concepts of Applied BioLogics, we understand the importance and the science of energy medicine. Making sure the body operates at the right energy levels is pure science and engineering. When enzymes start to fail on a systemic basis, then it is time to look at enzyme therapy, with enzyme supplements to compensate for the dysfunctional pathways. It is also time to look at how to detoxify the body. The body will only be restored to true health when the enzyme poisons have been removed and proper controls put on free radical pathology.
In fact, there are encouraging signs that the concepts of energy medicine are starting to permeate the medical field. Work performed at the Mayo Clinic by Dzeja and Terzic states; “at the level of the mitochondria and the nucleus of the cell, precise coupling of spatially separated intracellular ATP-producing and ATP-consuming processes is fundamental to the bioenergetics of living organisms, ensuring a fail-safe operation of the energetic system over a broad range of cellular functional activities. Mechanisms responsible for communication between spatially separated intracellular ATP consumption and ATP production processes, and their precise coupling over a broad range of cellular functional activity has remained a long-standing enigma. Distribution of cellular energy could be accomplished by altering phosphor transfer enzyme isoform composition and their intracellular localization. In this regard, derangement in cellular energy flow and distribution has been implicated in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as in determining uncontrolled growth and metastatic potential of tumor cells”.
The cliff note version of these statements is that enzymes contained in the mitochondria, the cytoplasm and the nucleus of the cell are responsible for the energy production, the energy transfer and the energy utilization within the cell. The enzymes must be located a proper distance from each other in order to achieve a balanced flow of energy. When energy flow is disturbed then cells do not function properly and major problems show up, such as heart disease, diabetes, dementia and cancer.
Functional medicine must look at the energy status of the body and this requires a very close examination of the enzymatic pathways of the body. The primary determinant of the spatial alignment of enzymes is cell hydration. Cellular water determines cell volume and whether the cell is swollen or dehydrated. Too much water and the enzymes will be too far apart. Too little cellular hydration and the enzymes will interfere with each other. Cellular hydration plays two critical roles in cell health, the spatial separation of the enzymes and the potential to be a proton donor.
Enzymes that are contaminated with toxins are not going to work. Make no mistake, America is loaded with toxins. The heavy metal toxins are quite prevalent. Mercury is found in the fish we eat and the silver fillings we put in our mouth, cadmium is found in cigarette smoke, arsenic throughout many of the water supplies due to industrial pollution and lead from paints and fuels. Aluminum and nickel are being monitored as contributing factors to Alzheimers and Parkinson’s disease. We even use barium in medical diagnostic tests. Exposure to heavy metals is easy to come by and the heavy metals have an affinity to attach themselves to the enzymes. The body will accumulate a toxic load over time. It shows up in our bodies as accelerated aging and chronic illness. Tissue samples taken from breast cancer patients often show 30,000 times the level of mercury as thought safe.
The FDA and EPA recently released warnings to pregnant mothers to avoid mercury contaminated fish, which included tuna and swordfish. The reason given was to avoid damage to the developing fetus, in particular, to avoid fetal brain damage. The mother should be well advised that mercury is not selective to the fetus. It will harm her as well as the fetus.
Mercury is even used in laboratory experiments as the toxin most easily applied to disrupt the flow of water into human cells through the aquaporin channels. The aquaporin channels are essentially enzymatic pathways that transport water into and out of the cells and cellular water into and out of the organelles of the cells like the mitochondria.
The aquaporin channels depend on the proper electrical charge on the enzymes to function. Mercury or any heavy metal can easily disrupt the electrical field of the aquaporin channel. Dehydration at the cellular level is common among all chronic illness. This can easily be the result of toxins shutting off the aquaporin channels. Clinical studies show that hydration affects human performance at every level of the body. Toxins interfere with hydration and the enzymatic performance in the cells, the mitochondria and the cell membrane walls. Heavy metals are very nasty enzyme poisons and must be considered a cofactor in every chronic illness. But heavy metals are not the only toxins that can affect enzyme performance.
Most of the chemical toxins we are exposed to in our daily lives, such as herbicides, insecticides and pesticides are chlorine or fluorine based. Agent Orange is probably the best known herbicide and it is extremely toxic to the human body. Fluorine and chlorine are chemically known as halogens and are extremely reactive substances. We are advised not to swallow our fluoridated toothpaste and to not use it with infants. Exposure to halogens also comes from flame retardant chemicals found on our carpets and upholstery plus baby clothes and cribs. These toxins can also disable enzymatic activity and membrane permeability which leads to uncontrolled free radical pathology and the accumulation of metabolic waste. Toxins are the silent killers.
Electron Coupled Proton Transfer in Ferredoxins
Ferredoxins are proteins that contain one or several iron-sulphur clusters. This makes such proteins eminent in electron transfer reactions. FdI is a particularly intensely investigated iron-sulphur protein for which also mutants have been crysallized and spectroscopically characterized. This allows to compare theoretical investigations with a variety of experimental data and validate the approach taken.
Because Fd I (PDB code 7FDR) contains a [3Fe-4S] and a [4Fe-4S] cluster, first parameters for describing the electrostatics and the bond-, angle-, and dihedral-terms in the molecular dynamics force field have to be derived. This is done using ab initio calculations. Density functional theory has shown to be very suitable for such investigations. We used UB3LYP with the 6-31G** basis set to calculate optimized structures of the isolated [3Fe-4S](0/+) and the biologically more relevant [3Fe-4S](0/+)(SCH3)3 cluster which is closer to the situation in the protein. Charges are calculated using standard Mulliken, the ESP and NBO method. All three charge sets are used in the molecular dynamics calculations.
Analysis of the experimental results suggested that the protonation occurs directly from the protein matrix to the FeS cluster. However, in our MD simulations, we observed a number of other candidate-hydrogen atoms that could possibly serve as proton donors. In particular, the suggested proton at Asp15 is generally too far away from the FeS cluster to serve as an ideal candidate. The other protons from surrounding side chains are usually strongly bound. A possible reaction mechanism involves the additional protonation of the protein side chain from solvent water which would make the NH of Asp15 less acidic. However, an attractive alternative to direct proton transfer from the protein matrix is the diffusion of water into the active site. We have shown that such a water molecule is dynamically stable and indeed could serve as a possible proton donor. Also, differences between a fast (native protein) and slow (D15E mutant) variant of the protein were observed in the MD simulations that could account for the observed slowdown of an order or magnitude upon mutating Asp15-->Glu15.[2,3]
 M. Meuwly and M. Karplus, Farad. Disc. Royal. Soc. 124, 297 (2003)
 K. Chen, J. Hirst, R. Camba, C. A. Bonagura, C. D. Stout, B. K. Burgess and F. A. Armstrong, Nature, 405, 814-817 (2000)
 M. Meuwly and M. Karplus, Biophys. J., in print (2004)
We have concluded that cells communicate by way of some unknown media that has not been well identified or studied. In addition to regular gradient channel communications cells also replicate and communicate using DNA/RNA transcriptions at replication time, and may cause mutated cells if missense mutations have occurred for any number of reasons including DNA-mRNA codon factors. We have reviewed the possibilities of wavefunctions upon cells that can result from 5G transmissions. Further there seems to be academically pros and cons related to multidirectional bombardments of wave engagements that act upon human biology.
We have discussed the widely held hypothesis that NIR is a known carcinogenic. These conclusions are as of date inconclusive because more consistent laboratory results are needed. In our opinion the results of NIR from cellphones and its towers are remarkable in its science insomuch as they are consistent in the after effects of NIR exposure, its harmful effects upon human biological cells. Although these affects may have varied effects in each subject there appears to be common reactants that are similar. This is likely due to the fact that no person has the exact DNA sequences. DNA does adjust causing a phenotype change due to environmental conditions and as these adaptations of DNA accrue it may change physiological responses to pathological intrusions. This DNA fortification may be the culprit when it comes to inconclusive or inconsistent results during evaluation time.
We have reached the scientific conclusion that the RAS may be manipulated by certain entrainments due to frequency waves that entrain the brain waveforms that communicate to somatic neurologically. It is our conjecture that neural motor functionality may be inhibited by waves along its same frequency ranges. It is our posit further, that motor neurons can be stimulated by exobiological frequencies specifically those of NIR broadcast systems. These entrainments that could result from cell towers and redistributed by cellphones may entrain brain frequencies that could motivate cells or neural actions.
Other factors may apply as far as laboratory results are concerned including scientific motivations outside of the scientific method proper. There are several research professionals that are very loyal to their constituents that fund their studies. This is a specific motivation for those that have a scientific question to answer in a way that benefits the constituents. Moreover, we could argue that the lack of funding for certain technologies in general could stagnate upward probabilities.
Conclusions Regarding Free Radical Pathology, and Oxidative Stress
The membrane walls of the eye constitute a lipid rich environment where free radical pathology and oxidative stress are likely to cause structure and function damage to the eye. Citing the recent literature on 5G frequencies, the 5G frequencies are known to raise the temperature of exposed tissues. The temperature increase will then increase the metabolic activity of the exposed tissue and thereby an increase in free radical activity and this is known as oxidative stress. Any human biological tissue will with certainty follow the reactions associated free radical pathology and the potential for cellular damage
One can confidently predict that exposure of the eyes to the 5G network will overtime lead to an increase of cancers associated with the eye and will exacerbate other vision disorders. Based on prior studies of Cancer and other chronic illnesses, a Nutritional Biotherapy program, centered on essential fatty acids coupled with the consumption of a proton donor water, will act as a strong barrier to the progression to cancer or other vision problems.
Within all human tissue, the production of ATP (the chemical fuel of the cells) occurs via the Krebs cycle within the mitochondria and requires the production of free radicals. A temperature rise in the intracellular fluids of the eye will increase the production of the free radicals and without adequate controls on oxidative stress the membrane walls of the mitochondria are subject to attack as well as the internal DNA of the mitochondria. This by itself will slowly lead to a decrease in cellular function and the transformation to a cancer cell. All the problems associated with vision are going to be accelerated by the 5G network. That is just the way human biological tissue will respond to the rise in temperature. This paper has described the biomolecular reactions that control the oxidative stress associated with free radical pathology. It is basic biomolecular engineering.
The science behind the proton donor water and its relationship to the Krebs' cycle is also part of understanding the role of free radical pathology and oxidative stress. Now the largest effects of oxidative stress (free radical pathology) are felt in the region of the mitochondria, the very area where the protons are needed most. Hence the proton donor water will have a very strong effect as an anti-oxidant.
The detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR) follow a different pathway of inducing free radical pathology then the 5G network and are more extensive, but the final end result is nearly identical: oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, proteins and many metabolites. Hence this paper has illustrated potential defenses against free radical damage.
IR exposure simultaneously disables the defense mechanisms against free radical pathology and systematically and nearly instantaneously overloads the cellular environment with Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), thought to be the most destructive of the free radicals. Almost immediately after cellular exposure to IR, the well-known antioxidant system becomes compromised leading to reduced GSH levels. The roles of these antioxidant enzymes are paramount even under normal cellular conditions to keep ROS levels and pro-oxidant mechanisms in check.
The combination of a real time increase in ROS and the disabling of the anti-oxidant system leads to real time damage to the cells of the body. IR is much more energetic and penetrating to the tissues, organs and glands of the body. In contrast to IR, the technology platform of the new 5G network uses a slow drumbeat of daily cellular exposure to the frequencies and wavelengths used within the 5G network. Unlike IR, the cellular damage caused by the 5G network is likely to be restricted to the face and predominantly the eyes.
By raising the temperature of the Intracellular fluids, the 5G technology slowly overburdens the free radical defense mechanisms of the exposed tissue. However, the long-term end result is still oxidative stress from free radical pathology and damage to the cells. The ability of our structured water products to rapidly absorb into and exit from the intracellular fluid medium will help suppress the heating effects of the 5G network and by being a proton donor water the products will exert a strong antioxidant effect.
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11 Mar 2013: De Iuliis GN, Newey RJ, King BV, Aitken RJ (2013) Correction: Mobile Phone Radiation Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and DNA Damage in Human Spermatozoa In Vitro. PLOS ONE 8(3): 10.1371/annotation/9a8a0172-3850-4059-b852-72c330769c1b. https://doi.org/10.1371/annotation/9a8a0172-3850-4059-b852-72c330769c1b View correction
ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING Volume 21, Number 2, 2014
A FORUM REVIEW ARTICLE
Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Biological Molecules—Mechanisms of Damage and Emerging Methods of Detection
Julie A. Reisz, Nidhi Bansal, Jiang Qian, Weiling Zhao, and Cristina M. Furduirs.2013.5489